Kingdom Prokaryotae (bacteria, cyanobacteria)

– Lack of nucleus & membrane-bounded organelles

– Some are photoautotrophs (cyanobacteria/blue-green algae)

– Circular DNA

– 70S ribosomes

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Kingdom Protoctista

 

Subkingdom Algae (Plant-like protists)

– Autotrophs (have chlorophyll)

– No true stem/leaves/root

 

Phylum Chlorophyta (Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas)

Phylum Zoomastigna (Euglena)

Phylum Phaeophyta (Fucus, brown algae)

 

Phylum Chlorophyta (Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas)

– Cell wall made of cellulose.

– Stores food as starch.

 

Phylum Zoomastigna (Euglena)

– Has pellicle to maintain its shape

– Stores carbohydrate as paramylum

– Has contractile vacuole

 

Phylum Phaeophyta (Fucus, brown algae)

– Stores laminarin

– Photosynthetic pigment is fucoxanthin

– Large thallus (holdfast, stipe, blade)

– Non-vascular

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Subkingdom Protozoa (Animal-like protists)

– Heterotroph

– Contractile vacuole

 

Phylum Rhizopoda (Amoeba)

Phylum Ciliophora (Paramecium)

 

Phylum Rhizopoda (Amoeba)

– Have contractile vacuole

– Pseudopodium

 

Phylum Ciliophora (Paramecium)

– Cilia

– Oral groove

– Macronucleus & micronucleus(reproduction)

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Kingdom Fungi

– Chitin cell wall

– Stores glycogen

– Heterotrophs (no chlorophyll)

– Non-motile

 

Phylum Zygomycota (Mucor)

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Kingdom Plantae

 

Phylum Bryophyta (Class Hepaticae—Marchantia)

– No true roots/stems/leaves

– Non-vascular

– Gametophyte generation is dominant (thallus) — attach to the substratum by rhizoid

– Antheridium & archegonium

– Water-dependent male gametes (antherozoids)

 

Phylum Filicinophyta (Ferns–Dryopteris)

– True stems & leaves

– Vascular (no xylem vessel, only tracheids)

– Sporophyte generation is dominant

– Sorus contains sporangium

– Water-dependent male gametes (antherozoids)

– Independent/free-living gametophyte generation (photosynthetic prothallus)

 

Phylum Coniferophyta (Pinus)

– Cones

– Ovules not protected by ovary

– Seed not protected by pericarp (naked seeds)

– Spores disperse by wind

– Vascular (no xylem vessels, no companion cell)

– Heterosporous

 

Phylum Angiospermophyta

– Flower: Male — Androecium (Stamen–anther, filament) ; Female — Gynaecium (Carpels–ovule, stigma, style)

– Heterosporous

– Protected seeds

– Double fertilisation

 

Class Dicotyledonae

– Vascular bundle in ring form

– Distinct cortex & pith

– Reticulate venation in leaves

– Show secondary growth

– Tap roots

– Floral divisible by 4 or 5

 

Class Monocotyledonae (Zea mays, corn/maize)

– Vascular bundles scattered

– No distinct pith/cortex

– No vascular cambium

– Parallel venation

– No secondary growth

– Fibrous roots

– Floral parts divisible by 3

– Petals & sepals not distinct

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